Overhead Crane Structure

The overhead crane is composed of bridge, trolley with lifting mechanism, crane running mechanism and control room etc.

1. Bridge is the basic component of overhead crane, which consists of main beam, end beam and other parts.

The main beam is straddled over the workshop, its two ends are connected with end beams, and the outside of the main beam is equipped with a walking platform and safety  railings.

The bridge is equipped with crane moving mechanism, electrical box, lifting mechanism, trolley running track and auxiliary sliding wire frame. One end of the bridge is equipped with the cab, and the other end is equipped with the main slide wire leading into the power supply.

2. The crane moving mechanism is composed of driving motor, brake, transmission shaft, reducer and wheel.

There are two driving modes: centralized driving and separate driving. Most of our overhead cranes adopt separate driving mode, which has the advantages of light weight, convenient installation and maintenance. The whole crane moves forward and backward along the length direction of the workshop driven by the crane moving mechanism. The trolley running mechanism is composed of trolley frame, trolley moving mechanism and lifting mechanism.

3. The trolley frame is welded with steel plate, and is equipped with trolley moving mechanism, lifting mechanism, handrail and lifting limit switch.

The trolley can move left and right along the track on the main beam of the bridge. Buffer and limit switch are installed at both ends of the trolley moving direction. The trolley moving mechanism is composed of motor, reducer, drum, brake, etc. The motor drives the driving wheel to make the car move after decelerating.

The hoisting mechanism is composed of motor, reducer, drum, brake, etc. the hoisting motor is connected with the reducer through the brake wheel and coupling, and the output shaft of the reducer is connected with the hoisting drum.

4. The control room is the pod for crane operation, also known as the cab. In the control room, there are moving mechanism control devices, lifting mechanism control devices and crane protection devices. The control room is generally fixed at one end of the main beam, and a few are installed under the trolley to move with the trolley. There is a hatch leading to the walking platform above the control room, which is used for the personnel to get on and off when repairing the mechanical and electrical equipment of the cart and trolley.

5. Trolley conductive device (auxiliary slide wire).

6. Crane main power conductive device (main slide wire).

7. AC magnetic control box, resistance box.

8. Track.

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Main Technical Parameters of Bridge Crane

The main technical parameters of the bridge crane are lifting capacity, span, lifting height, running speed, lifting speed, working type and power on duration of the motor, etc

Lifting height: the distance between the upper limit position and the lower limit position of the crane’s spreader or grabbing device (such as grab and electromagnetic suction cup) is called the lifting height of the crane, in meters (m).

Span: the span of the bridge crane refers to the distance between the wheel centerlines at both ends of the main beam of the crane, that is, the distance between the crane track centerlines, in meters (m).

Lifting capacity: also known as rated lifting capacity, refers to the actual maximum allowable lifting capacity of the crane, in tons (T).

The lifting capacity of bridge crane is 5, 10 (single hook), 15 / 3, 20 / 5, 30 / 5, 50 / l0, 75 / 20, 100 / 20, 125 / 20, 150 / 30, 200 / 30, 250 / 30t (double hook), etc.

According to the lifting capacity, the bridge crane can be divided into three grades: small crane of 5-10t, medium crane of 10-50t and heavy crane of more than 50t.

Working type: the working type of crane is determined by its load rate and busy degree, which can be divided into four grades: light grade, medium grade, heavy grade and extra heavy grade.

1.Light grade: Operation speed is low, use times are few, full load opportunities are few, power on duration is 15%. It is used in the workplace which is not tense and heavy. Such as crane used for installation and maintenance in hydro-power station and power plant.

2.Medium grade: It often works under different loads, with medium speed and not too heavy work. The power on duration is 25%, such as the crane used in general machining workshop and assembly workshop.

3.Heavy grade: Heavy work, often working under heavy load, with a power on duration of 40%, such as cranes used in metallurgical and casting workshops.

4.Extra heavy grade: Often working under rated lifting capacity,the work is very busy, and the power on duration is 60%, such as metallurgical bridge crane.

overhead cranes

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How to Maintain Overhead Crane?

1) The appearance of overhead bridge crane: sweeping the appearance completely, so that there is no dust and no yellow robe. Please check that whether there are cracks and open welding.

2) Trolley: check and fasten the drive shaft seat, gear box, coupling and shaft, key is loose; in the meanwhile, please check and adjust the brake wheel clearance to make it uniform, sensitive and reliable.

3) Check the bridge crane reducer mainly depends on whether it leaks oil. When there is abnormal noise inside the box, we must open the lid. Generally due to bearing damage or gear meshing side clearance is too large, serious wear of tooth surface and other reasons.

4) Lifting and hoisting: check whether the wire rope, hook and pulley are safe and reliable, and wear should be replaced when the wear exceeds the specified value. Check and adjust the brake to make it safe, sensitive and reliable.

5) Inspection of the steel wire rope of the bridge type crane. The commonly used varieties are phosphate coating wire rope, galvanized steel wire rope and light surface wire rope. Inspection of wire rope should focus on the observation of broken wire, wear, twist, rust and so on. It is necessary to mark some places with serious wear and wire breaking but not exceeding the standard, in order to focus on re-inspection. Please pay attention to checking whether the safety limiter in the reel is effective, whether the wire rope pressing plate on the drum is pressed and the number of pressing plates is suitable.

6) Lubrication: check the oil and oil content of all parts and add or replace lubricating oil as required.

7) Check the pulley of the bridge type crane. The key point is whether the groove bottom wear is excessive and whether the cast iron pulley has cracks. For the balance wheel of the pulley block of the pitching mechanism, it is easy to be ignored because it does not move normally. Therefore, the flexibility of rotation must be checked before installation, otherwise, the length of the rope and the tension of the steel rope in the installation can’t be adjusted automatically by the balance wheel so that the difficulty of adjusting the rope in the high altitude and the risk of operation are increased.

8) Electric system: the sensitivity and reliability of each limit switch; the sensitivity and reliability of the electrical appliances in the electrical box; check whether the motor, the bell, and the wire are safe and reliable; the situation of signal light.

9) Check whether the coupling of bridge crane has loosening or even rolling key. It is important to check the elastic rubber ring of the elastic pin coupling for any abnormal wear. For the toothed coupling, please pay attention to the wear condition of the gear ring. Because of the poor installation accuracy and the large offset between two axes, the whole gear ring will wear out quickly in a short time. In such a case, a serious accident is likely to occur in the lifting mechanism.

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Tips of Operating Overhead Crane Equipment

  1. Owner of the overhead crane needs to ensure that the equipment is texted by authorized examiner. In the meanwhile, the machine should be tested thoroughly in order that the machine can be operated and used normally. What’s more, the operator should be trained professionally so that the service time of the lifting equipment can be prolonged.
  2. Lifting supervisor needs to co-ordinate all lifting activities. Co-ordination can be achieved through the proper briefing of the lifting plan to all relevant personnel such as the lifting team and co-workers affected by the lifting operations.
  3. The crane operators are required to be trained and deemed competent in the operation of the crane. In the meanwhile, the crane operator and lifting supervisor should cooperate with each other well.
  4. Before the formal working of the crane, please check the crane so that the crane machine can be worked normally and avoid some unnecessary accidents.
  5. Check the whether the crane hoists is in proper working condition and all the motion indicators on the pendant control correspond with control device marking. Always familiarize yourself with the controls as pendant controls can differ from one another.
  6. Please ensure all hoist limit switches, travel limited switches and indicating devices are in good working condition.
  7. Please make sure that the hook block is in good working condition. There should be no illegal modification to the hook.
  8. Please visually check the operating environment to make sure that there is no obstacles to affect the safe use of the overhead crane.
  9. The cranes in our company are equipped with the safety device in order that the crane can finish the lifting task normally. If there are improper things, the machine will give warn to the operator.
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